Monday, November 11, 2013

Army Contracting Command (ACC) & Expeditionary Contracting Command (ECC)

One of my most recent requests…

The Army Contracting Command is a contracting services command of the United States Army. "On October 1, 2008, the Army recognized the formal establishment of the Army Contracting Command as a major subordinate command of the U.S. Army Materiel Command. This new Army organization performs the majority of contracting work for the U.S. Army, and consists of two subordinate commands responsible for installation and expeditionary contracting, and other Army contracting elements."

Expeditionary Contracting Command is a major subordinate command of the U.S. Army Contracting Command headquartered at Redstone Arsenal, Ala.
The one-star command is organized through its nine Contracting Support Brigades, seventeen Contingency Contracting Battalions, sixteen Senior Contingency Contracting Teams, and ninety-two Contingency Contracting Teams.

ECC brigades include:

·         408th Contracting Support Brigade, Camp Arifjan, Kuwait
·         409th Contracting Support Brigade, Kaiserslautern, Germany
·         903rd Contingency Contracting Battalion
·         410th Contracting Brigade, Fort Sam Houston, Texas
·         411th Contracting Brigade, Yongsan, Korea
·         412th Contracting Brigade, Fort Sam Houston, Texas
·         900th Contingency Contracting Battalion, Fort Bragg, N.C.[2]
·         413th Contracting Brigade, Fort Shafter, Hawaii
·         414th Contracting Brigade, Vicenza, Italy
·         two other brigades

The above information provided in part by Wikipedia, U.S. Army Center of Military history, The Institute of Heraldry, Global Security

Thursday, October 10, 2013

1st Hussars (RCAC) 2nd Edition

Recently I had to re-visit some of my Canadian insignia for one of the commissioned projects. Of course I could have simply re-used my earlier versions of the badges, but I wouldn't be me unless I have re-created them from scratch. And this is how the second editions of some of my Canadian badges came to life. I always enjoyed working with Canadian regimental insignia, due to their sheer beauty and challenges they present. Long story short, here is one of my second editions for you to enjoy – the 1st Hussars (RCAC)…

The 1st Hussars is a Primary Reserve Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment of the Canadian Army. As part of 31 Canadian Brigade Group, the Regiment is based in London and Sarnia and provides the Brigade with highly motivated and trained armoured crewmen. The 1st Hussars has a long and storied history that includes the D-Day landings as well as more recent peacekeeping operations and support to the Afghan mission.

The 1st Hussars traces its roots to the formation of the St. Thomas Troop of Volunteer Militia Cavalry in March 1856 and the First Troop of Volunteer Militia Cavalry of London in July of the same year. In 1880, regimental headquarters moved to London, where it has remained to this day. Despite "1st" in the title, the regiment is not the most senior armoured unit. With the militia reorganization of 1872, the senior or only cavalry regiment within a Militia District adopted the numerical designation of that district. Southwestern Ontario comprised Military District No. 1, hence the original designation as the 1st Regiment of Cavalry. The unit was renamed 1st Hussars in 1892 and because a British mounted unit numbered "1" never existed, it was unnecessary to add a 'Canada' or 'Canadian' modifier. Following the Second World War, because of wartime and earlier conversion to armour of some more senior infantry regiments, the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps decided that seniority would be determined by date of birth, regardless of the Corps in which the unit was raised. Regular Force regiments take precedence, and seniority among themselves by date of birth. 1st Hussars is placed seventh in the order of seniority of militia armoured regiments.

The above information provided in part by Wikipedia, and the official websites of the corresponding units and formations.

Tuesday, October 8, 2013

Navy Construction Battalion (CB): USN Seabees

This one was tons of fun to work with. I really invested my heart and soul into utter fuzziness of the bee. Enjoy.

A Seabee is a member of the Navy Construction Battalion(CB). The word "Seabee" comes from initials "CB". The Seabees have a history of building bases, bulldozing and paving thousands of miles of roadway and airstrips, and accomplishing a myriad of other construction projects in a wide variety of military theaters dating back to World War II.
Frank J. Iafrate, a civilian plan file clerk at Naval Air Station Quonset Point, Rhode Island, was the artist who designed the original Seabee logo ("Fighting 'Bee") in early 1942. The logo has remained in use, unchanged. In late 1942, after designing the logo, he enlisted in the Seabees.

As always, the above insignia are available on a limited number of selected quality products via my “Military Insignia” galleries at Zazzle. You may simply follow the direct links in the article to navigate to the corresponding galleries
I will also make my insignia designs available free of charge to any military units and personnel, for any non-profit/non-commercial and charitable causes, benefiting troops and their families. In addition, I would make my designs available free of charge to any military branches, formations and units for any non-commercial internal duty-specific purposes, such as unit-related web design, training materials or presentations, as I did on many occasions in the past.

The above information provided in part by Wikipedia, The Institute of Heraldry, Global Security, and the official websites of the corresponding units and formations.

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC)

Recently I was contacted by one of the representatives of Canadian Department of National Defence (yes, this is how we spell “defense” here in Canada, so – deal with it) with a gentle reminder that I was falling behind on my Canadian military insignia. Which was true, and those of you who followed the story know exactly why. Those of you, who did not, can catch up here. Long story short – I was missing a brand-new and important command from my line-up – the Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC), to be exact. Well, the things you do to keep DND guys happy…  And here it is…

The Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC; French: Commandement des opérations interarmées du Canada or COIC) is one of the two unified commands of the Canadian Forces, the other one being the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command. CJOC was announced in May 2012 as the result of the cost-cutting measures in the 2012 federal budget through the merger of Canada Command, the Canadian Expeditionary Force Command and the Canadian Operational Support Command under an integrated command-and-control structure. The command was stood up on 5 October 2012 to officially replace the three former organizations.
The command team is composed of a three-star commander, assisted by three two-star deputy commanders, one for each of the three main components (Continental, Expeditionary, and Support). The team is rounded out by a one-star chief of staff and four senior non-commissioned members, an overall command chief warrant/petty officer, and a command chief warrant/petty officer for each component.
CJOC's role is to "anticipate and conduct Canadian Forces operations, and develop, generate and integrate joint force capabilities for operations."
The continental component consists of six regional joint task forces. In five of these JTFs, the commander also commands an army division or a maritime force. The five southern JTFs have no permanent operational units: units and detachments are temporarily assigned to them from the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force according to operational requirements.

[Oct.3, 2013 - Edited to add] However, the story did not end there. In fact, it had a pretty cool sequel. Today I have received a package from DND. The contents of the package have pleasantly surprised me, to say the least...  To drop the suspense, here is what I found in the aforementioned package:

The above information provided in part by Wikipedia, National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces website, Global Security, and other official websites of the corresponding formations.

Thursday, July 25, 2013

Brazilian Marines: Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais (CFN)

Recently I was contacted by one of the active duty Brazilian Marines. The nature of his request was basically as follows: we like your rendering of the USMC emblem, could you do the same for us? I have to admit, I am getting similar requests pretty much on a regular basis, and I truly wish I could act on all of such requests. Unfortunately, more often than not, I simply can’t, due to my projects and custom orders work overload. This time, however, I had a window of opportunity and decided to help our Brazilian brothers in arms. The result of this undertaking can be found below.

Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais or CFN is the land combat branch of the Brazilian Navy. Deployed nationwide, along the coasts, in the marginal regions of Amazônia and in the Pantanal, in peacetime it provides for the security of Naval installations and aids isolated populations through civic action programs in the Naval Districts. Externally, it provides security for the embassies of Brazil in Algeria, in Paraguay, in Haiti and in Bolivia. It has participated in all of the armed conflicts in the Military history of Brazil.
The Brazilian Marines trace their origin to 1808 when the troops of the Royal Brigade of the Navy (the Portuguese Marine Corps) arrived in Brazil (then a Portuguese colony) when Mary I of Portugal and her son and regent John VI relocated themselves to the Portuguese South American territory during the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. In retaliation for the invasion of Portugal, Prince Regent, Dom João commanded the invasion of French Guiana, whose capital, Cayenne, was captured on the 14th of January 1809. Later, the unit was involved in several campaigns: the War of the independence of Brazil, conflicts in the River Plate basin, and in the Paraguayan War. During the latter the Corps won distinction in both the Battle of Riachuelo and in the taking of Humaitá. The CFN if has participated in the humanitarian actions promoted by UN in such diverse theaters of operation as Bosnia, Honduras, Mozambique, Rwanda, Angola, East Timor, and recently, in Haiti (MINUSTAH).
With about 15,000 men, all volunteers, professionals in combat on land, air and sea, its mission is to guarantee the projection of the naval power on land, by means of landings carried through with ships and staff of the Navy.
In the case of Brazil this is a complex mission, since the country has a territory of about 8,5 million km² (3.28 million sq. miles), a coast of more than 7,400 km (4,600 mi) with many oceanic islands, and a navigable waterways network of approximately 50,000 km (31,000 mi). This last one includes the Brazilian Amazon. To cover climates and natural landscapes so diversified as Pampas of Rio Grande Do Sul, pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, deserts of the Northeast region and Amazonian Rainforest, demands a training of the highest standards, agility and versatility. Therefore, there are units trained in demolition techniques, special operations, combat in forests, mountain and ice, and helicopter-transported operations.
Trained as a Fast Deployment Unit, recently, with the sending of Brazilian military observers, also integrating the Peacekeeping Forces of the United Nations, the Marines have made their presence in distinctive areas of conflict as El Salvador, Bosnia, Angola, Moçambique, Ruanda, Peru, Ecuador, East Timor and, more recently, Haiti.

As always, the above insignia are available on a limited number of selected quality products via my “Military Insignia” galleries at Zazzle. You may simply follow the direct links in the article to navigate to the corresponding galleries
I will also make my insignia designs available free of charge to any military units and personnel, for any non-profit/non-commercial and charitable causes, benefiting troops and their families. In addition, I would make my designs available free of charge to any military branches, formations and units for any non-commercial internal duty-specific purposes, such as unit-related web design, training materials or presentations, as I did on many occasions in the past.

The above information provided in part by Wikipedia, Global Security, and the official website of the Brazilian marines.

Thursday, April 18, 2013

AFSOC Special Tactics: TACP, CCT, PJ and SOWT

As my “Military Insignia 3D” project continues to expand and develop, I am getting a fair amount of feedback and suggestions, which help me tremendously along the way. Quite often such two-way communications determine what the next phase of the project would be. This time was no different. An e-mail from an active duty operator pointed out a significant and inexcusable gap in my lineup.  We are talking about U.S. Air Force Special Operations as a whole, and its Special Tactics branch in particular. As it turns out, I am not the only one guilty of overlooking what these amazing guys are about. While SEALs and Army Special Forces get all the ink and glory in the public eye, many are not even aware of the Air Force Special Operations existence. Well, I guess it is time to change it, at least in my books. And I would like to begin with the AFSOC Special Tactics guys, who are always there on the ground in the thick of things, along with SEALs and Army SF. Let’s look at TACPs, CCTs, PJs and SOWT operators.

Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) was established 10 Feb 1983 as Twenty-Third Air Force, with headquarters at Hurlburt Field, Florida. AFSOC is a United States Air Force (USAF) major command and is the elite Special Forces component of the Air Force (AFSOF) to the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), a unified command located at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. AFSOC provides AF Special Operations Forces (SOF) for worldwide deployment and assignment to regional unified commands.
In December 1992, AFSOC special tactics and intelligence personnel supported Operation Restore Hope in Somalia. In late 1994, AFSOC units spearheaded Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti, and in 1995 Operation Deliberate Force in the Balkans. By the end of September 2001, AFSOC deployed forces to southwest Asia for Operation Enduring Freedom to help destroy the al Qaeda terrorist organization and remove the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. AFSOC airpower delivered special tactics forces to the battle ground and they in turn focused U.S. airpower and allowed Afghanistan's Northern Alliance ground forces to dispatch the Taliban and al Qaeda from Afghanistan. AFSOC personnel also deployed to the Philippines to help aid that country's efforts against terrorism. In March 2003, AFSOC again deployed forces to southwest Asia this time in support of what would become Operation Iraqi Freedom.

The command's SOF are composed of highly trained, rapidly deployable Airmen who are equipped with specialized aircraft. These forces conduct global special operations missions ranging from precision application of firepower, to infiltration, aviation foreign internal defense, exfiltration, resupply and refueling of SOF operational elements. The command's Special Tactics Squadrons are led by Special Tactics Officers (STOs). Special Tactics Squadrons combine Combat Controllers, TACP, Special Operations Weather Technicians, Pararescuemen and combat rescue officers to form versatile SOF teams. AFSOC's unique capabilities include airborne radio and television broadcast for psychological operations, as well as combat aviation advisors to provide other governments military expertise for their internal development.
Special Tactics is the US Air Force special operations ground force. Similar in ability and employment to MARSOC, Army Special Forces and Navy SEALs, Air Force Special Tactics personnel are typically the first to enter combat and often find themselves deep behind enemy lines in demanding, austere conditions, usually with little or no support. Due to the rigors of the job, Special Tactics yearlong training is one of the most demanding in the military, with attrition rates near 80 to 90 percent. In an attempt to reduce the high attrition, Special Tactics is very selective when choosing their officers. Special Tactics Officers (STO) undergo a highly competitive process to gain entry into the Special Tactics career field, ensuring only the most promising and capable leaders are selected. STO leadership and role modeling during the difficult training reduces the attrition rate for enlisted trainees. As befits their special connection between SOF and the USAF, these airmen have specialized equipment such as C4 vests.
STO selection is a two-phase process. Beginning with Phase One, a board of veteran STOs reviews application packages consisting of letters of recommendation, fitness test scores, and narratives written by the applicants describing their career aspirations and reasons for applying. Based on Phase One performance, approximately 8 to 10 applicants are invited to the next phase. Phase Two is a weeklong battery of evaluations, ranging from physical fitness and leadership to emotional intelligence and personality indicators. At the end of Phase Two, typically 2–4 applicants are selected to begin the year-plus Special Tactics training pipeline.

The Tactical Air Control Party, commonly abbreviatedTACP, is a small
team of personnel who provide airspace deconfliction and terminal control of Close Air Support at battle group level or below. It usually consists of an officer Forward Air Controller (FAC), a SNCO FAC and usually a pair of signallers/drivers. An Air Force Tactical Air Control Party, commonly abbreviated TACP, is usually a team of two or more Air Force TACP journeyman or craftsman (AFSC 1C4X1) aligned with a conventional or special operations combat maneuver unit to advise ground commanders on the best use of air power, establish and maintain command and control communications, and provide precision terminal attack guidance of fixed- and rotary-wing close air support aircraft, artillery, and naval gunfire. A TACP always includes at least one Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) qualified to control attack aircraft. It can also include an Air Liaison Officer, who works primarily in an advisor capacity.
Along with being aligned with all conventional combat units, TACP airmen are also attached to Special Forces, Navy SEALs, as well as Joint Special Operations Command units and multi-national Special Operations task forces, primarily as communication and aircraft coordination experts and precision airstrike controllers. In addition, TACP members can be assigned to AFSOC Special Tactics Squadrons to perform their traditional duties in support of the Special Tactics mission. Enlisted members are either known as JTACs or ROMADs. JTACs provide terminal attack control for attack aircraft and act in an advisory capacity for their aligned army unit. ROMADs (Now referred to by the Air Force as JTAC's in training) are communication experts who assist JTACs in the performance of their duties while working to attain JTAC status for themselves. ("Radio Operator, Maintainer, and Driver," a holdover acronym from the career field’s Vietnam era, when enlisted airmen served primarily as assistants to officer-only Forward Air Controllers, has been replaced in the TACP vernacular with the term "Recon, Observe, Mark & Destroy" in reflection of the modern role of the TACCS)
TACP members wear black berets with a distinctive red, blue, and green cloth flash and silver crest. Pilots serving as Air Liaison Officers are authorized to wear the black beret, flash, and rank while assigned to a TACP unit, but not at any other point in their career (many choose not to don the black beret out of respect for the enlisted TACP airmen who have undergone intense training to earn this distinctive uniform item). Air Liaison Officers can obtain JTAC status by attending a four-week joint terminal attack controller qualification course, but are not required to do so. Non-rated Air Liaison Officers, or "13 Limas," undergo the same intense training as their TACP airmen. They wear the black beret.

United States Air Force Combat Control Teams, singularCombat Controller, (CCT) (AFSC 1C2X1) are ground combat forces specialized in a traditional pathfinder role while having a heavy emphasis on simultaneous air traffic control, fire support and command, control, and communications in covert or austere environments. Assigned to Special Tactics Squadrons, Combat Controllers are an integral part of Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), the Air Force component of United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). Combat Controllers are often assigned individually or as a team to Army Special Forces, Army Ranger, and Navy SEAL teams to provide expert air support coordination and communications capabilities. Many Combat Controllers qualify and maintain proficiency as joint terminal attack controllers (JTACs) where they call in and direct air strikes, close air support and fire support during battle. Combat Control, like all U.S. special operations forces career fields (e.g., Army Rangers, Army Special Forces, Navy SEALs, etc.), is male-only. Out of the five Air Force Crosses awarded since the Global War on Terror started in 2001 three have been awarded to Combat Controllers for extraordinary heroism in combat.
The term "Combat Control Team" comes from World War II where allied troop-carrier squadrons developed gliderborne teams called Combat Control Teams. A Combat Control Team consisted of one glider pilot and four enlisted technicians. They utilized a jeep and a trailer-mounted radio to pass critical information to aircraft. The first time they were used were during Operation Varsity where two teams with the 18th Airborne Corps infiltrated German lines and they established forward airfields where they supported resupply operations and provided airfield control.

Pararescuemen, also known as PJs (Pararescue Jumpers), are Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) and Air Combat Command (ACC) operatives tasked with recovery and medical treatment of personnel in humanitarian and combat environments. These special operations units are also used to support NASA missions and have been used to recover astronauts after water landings. They are attached to other SOF teams from all branches to conduct other operations as appropriate. Of the 22 enlisted Air Force Cross recipients, 12 are Pararescuemen. They wear the maroon beret as a symbol of their elite status, and to symbolize the blood shed by past PJs, as well as the blood current PJs are willing to shed to save lives. Part of the little-known Air Force Special Tactics community and long an enlisted preserve, the Pararescue service began commissioning Combat Rescue Officers early in the 21st century.

Special Operations Weather Team (SOWT) (AFSC 1W0X2) specialists are tactical observer/forecasters with ground combat capabilities and fall under the 720th Special Tactics Group within the Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC). The mission of a Special Operations Weather Team Specialist is to deploy by the most feasible means available into combat and non-permissive environments to collect and interpret meteorological data and provide air and ground forces commanders with timely, accurate intelligence. They collect data, assist mission planning, generate accurate and mission-tailored target and route forecasts in support of global special operations, conduct special weather reconnaissance and train foreign national forces. SOWTs provide vital intelligence and deploy with joint air and ground forces in support of direct action, counter-terrorism, foreign internal defense, humanitarian assistance, special reconnaissance, austere airfield, and combat search and rescue.

As always, the above insignia are available on a limited number of selected quality products via my “Military Insignia” galleries atZazzle. You may simply follow the direct links in the article to navigate to the corresponding galleries
I will also make my insignia designs available free of charge to any military units and personnel, for any non-profit/non-commercial and charitable causes, benefiting troops and their families. In addition, I would make my designs available free of charge to any military branches, formations and units for any non-commercial internal duty-specific purposes, such as unit-related web design, training materials or presentations, as I did on many occasions in the past.

The above information provided in part by Wikipedia, U.S. Army Center of Military history, The Institute of Heraldry, Global Security, and the official websites of the corresponding units.

Thursday, February 21, 2013

Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command (JPAC)

Recently I was approached by a mass communication specialist (media guy) currently stationed at the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command (JPAC). He was working on a promotional video for the Command, and was wondering whether he could use some of my artwork, which I had no problem with. He also inquired if it would be possible to give my special treatment to the JPAC logo. Knowing who JPAC guys are and what they do, I immediately accepted the challenge. Considering the amount of respect and gratitude these guys deserve, it was a true honor to do something nice for them in return. As these quiet types are normally not exactly on the front pages of military media digests, here is a little background on what JPAC is about.

 The Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command (JPAC) is a joint task force within the United States Department of Defense (DOD) whose mission is to account for Americans who are listed as Prisoners Of War (POW), or Missing In Action (MIA), from all past wars and conflicts. It has been especially visible in conjunction with the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue. The mission of the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command (JPAC) is to achieve the fullest possible accounting of all Americans missing as a result of the nation's past conflicts.” The motto of JPAC is “Until they are home”.
JPAC is a standing joint task force within the United States Pacific Command. Its headquarters is located at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam in Hawaii. In DOD terminology, “joint” means the organization comprises members from two or more branches of the military.
JPAC maintains three permanent overseas detachments and two local detachments devoted to the ongoing tasks of POW/MIA accounting:

Detachment 1 – Bangkok, Thailand (American Embassy in Thailand)
Detachment 2 – Hanoi, Vietnam
Detachment 3 – Vientiane, Laos
Detachment 4 – Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Oahu, Hawaii; this detachment is the home base of the recovery teams when they are not deployed

Each detachment is under the command of a field grade officer of the United States armed forces.
HQ Detachment – Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Oahu, Hawaii; this detachment is responsible for the day to day administrative operation of the command
The laboratory portion of JPAC is referred to as the Central Identification Laboratory (CIL).
JPAC is commanded by a flag officer, and is staffed by approximately 400 soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines, and Department of the Navy civilians. JPAC’s operations are divided into four areas: Analysis and Investigation, Recovery, Identification, and Closure. JPAC investigates leads concerning Americans who were killed in action but were never brought home. This process involves close coordination with other U.S. agencies involved in the POW/MIA issue. JPAC carries out technical negotiations and talks with representatives of foreign governments around the world in order to ensure positive in-country conditions are maintained or created for JPAC investigative and recovery operations wherever JPAC teams deploy in the world. If enough evidence is found, a site will be recommended for recovery. JPAC has 18 Recovery Teams whose members travel throughout the world to recover missing from past wars. A typical recovery team is made up of 10 to 14 people, led by a team leader and a forensic anthropologist. Other members of the team typically include a team sergeant, linguist, medic, life support technician, forensic photographer, RF systems communications technician/operator and an explosive ordnance disposal technician. Additional experts are added to the mission as needed, such as mountaineering specialists or divers.
The team carefully excavates the site and screens the soil to locate all possible remains and artifacts. In the case of an airplane crash, a recovery site may be quite large.
Once the recovery effort is completed, the team returns to Hawaii. All remains and artifacts found during the recovery operation are then transported from a U.S. military plane to JPAC’s Central Identification Laboratory.
Upon arrival at the laboratory, all remains and artifacts recovered from a site are signed over to the custody of the CIL and stored in a secure area. Forensic anthropologists carefully analyze all remains and artifacts to determine the sex, race, age at death, and height of the individual. Anthropologists may also analyze trauma caused at or near the time of death and pathological conditions of bone such as arthritis or previous healed breaks. Lab scientists use a variety of techniques to establish the identification of missing Americans, including analysis of skeletal and dental remains, sampling mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and analyzing material evidence, personal effects, aviation life-support equipment (gear used by aircrew: helmets, oxygen masks, harnesses, etc.), or other military equipment.
Often, recovered military and personal equipment artifacts are forwarded to the USAF Life Sciences Equipment Laboratory (LSEL, located at Brooks City-Base, in San Antonio, TX), for advanced scientific and historical analysis. The LSEL (a highly unique scientific facility within the US and the world) is singularly qualified to scientifically study recovered military equipment artifacts and determine critical forensic aspects, to include, but not limited to: number of unaccounted for personnel represented at the loss site (i.e. 2 aviators), branch of military service represented (i.e. Navy), vehicle type represented (i.e. F-4 aircraft type), time frame represented (i.e. c. 1967), and represented levels of survivability (i.e. any evidence of fatal/non-fatal status). Frequently, the LSEL is able to provide crucial case determinations (through analysis of recovered equipment artifacts) when other critical evidence (such as human remains: bone or teeth) is not recovered or available, and/or does not yield any substantial conclusions through testing (i.e. DNA testing).

The recovery and identification process may take years to complete. In addition to the factors previously mentioned, each separate line of evidence must be examined at the CIL (bones, teeth, and material evidence) and correlated with all historical evidence. All reports undergo a thorough peer review process that includes an external review by independent experts. Additionally, if mtDNA is part of the process, the search for family reference samples for mtDNA comparison can add a significant amount of time to the identification process. Completed cases are forwarded to the appropriate service Mortuary Affairs office, whose members personally notify next-of-kin family members.

JPAC conducts a number of missions each year in its ongoing efforts. The missions per year for individuals missing for each war:
Korean War: 5 missions
Vietnam War (including Southeast Asia): 10 missions
World War II and the Cold War: 10 missions

Still missing, as of 4 December 2012:
World War II: 73,677
Korean War: 7,938
Vietnam War: 1,655
Cold War: 126
Iraq and other conflicts: 6
Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan War): 1 – Sergeant Bowe R. Bergdahl

As always, the above insignia are available on a limited number of selected quality products via my “Military Insignia” galleries at Zazzle. You may simply follow the direct links in the article to navigate to the corresponding galleries
I will also make my insignia designs available free of charge to any military units and personnel, for any non-profit/non-commercial and charitable causes, benefiting troops and their families. In addition, I would make my designs available free of charge to any military branches, formations and units for any non-commercial internal duty-specific purposes, such as unit-related web design, training materials or presentations, as I did on many occasions in the past.

The above information provided in part by Wikipedia, U.S. Army Center of Military history, The Institute of Heraldry, Global Security, and the official website of the JPAC.

Thursday, February 7, 2013

39th Special Forces Detachment (SFD-K) and Republic of Korea Special Forces

Quite often, mainly thanks to growing popularity of my “Military Insignia 3D” project, I would be approached directly by unit commanders or military veterans with requests to recreate their unit insignia using my somewhat unorthodox technique. At first, I thought this time was no different. Little did I know that a short e-mail I have then received would trigger an entirely new chapter of my project, new friendships, an occasion to learn a world about one of the most interesting units of the U.S. Special Forces history, as well as a chance to get acquainted with previously unknown to me Special Forces of a friendly country, and, to top it all up -- an opportunity for my artwork to be a featured in a new remarkable book, written by veterans of the above-mentioned Special Forces unit… But, I guess, I am getting a bit ahead of myself.  So, let’s rewind…

It was mid-April of 2012, when I was contacted by Chuck Stanton, US Army Retired, First Sergeant (SF). Here is an excerpt from his original message:

      A bit of personal background as to why I'm sending this email to you. I am retired U.S. Army and served with Special Forces. In particular, the Detachment in Korea is what this is all about (I served three years on that team). Commonly known as Special Forces Detachment-Korea, or, Det-K, it is the longest serving forward-deployed Special Forces detachment in US Army history. This year marks the 50th Anniversary of that deployment.
   Presently, I along with three other former members (Team Leader, Team Sergeant Major, Operations/Intel Sergeant, and of course, myself) are preparing a book by, and for, the current and past members of the team. A close analogy in format would be a high school year book, or a military unit deployment book. There, the similarity ends. Each member is writing a short narrative of their memories as well as providing any photos they may have. We, the four horsemen are putting it all together and will publish the book.
   I am the one who is doing the overall design and layout of the book, and I was looking through the WWW for some clean copies of the uniform patches we wear on our uniform which represent the Republic of Korea Army Special Forces (ROKA SF) brigades we advise...which is how I happen to find your webpage.
   I wonder if 1.) I can use a couple of the Special Operations emblems you have created in our book, and, 2.) Could I convince you to see if you might do a work-up on the ROKA SF brigade patches for us to use in our book….”

Needless to say, I was interested. Especially so, because I knew very little, if anything, about SFD-K, and even less about ROKA Special Forces. Also, projects of such nature happen to be my true passion, because they usually involve tons of research, loads of new discoveries and hours of designing from scratch. And last, but not least – the idea of my artwork being featured in such a very special book felt quite right.
As a result of this project, I have recreated several SFD-K patches, learned a lot about the unit, amassed considerable amount of information about Republic of Korea Army Special Forces, and recreated patches of the ROKA Special Warfare Command (ROKASWC), all the seven ROKA SF brigades, as well as one Special Missions Battalion. I also expanded my Special Forces section of the “Military Insignia 3D” project - its Special Operations Command Korea (SOCKOR) section to be exact, and added an entirely new chapter to my project dedicated to the Republic of Korea Army (or ROKA for short). At the time of this writing, the final draft of the book called “DET-K: The First Fifty Years” (with my insignia featured in it) has been sent to the publisher, and I can’t wait for my very own hard copy of the book!  Below are the results of this adventure, along with a few notes on the units involved…

The 39th Special Forces Detachment (Airborne), 1st Special Forces Regiment primarily helps train Republic of Korea special warfare units in specialized tactics, techniques, and procedures. In a wartime scenario on the Korean peninsula, the members of the Detachment would operate as coalition support team leaders. Under the operational control of Special Operations Command Korea (SOCKOR), the Detachment is formally assigned to the 1st Special Forces Group (Airborne).
The 39th Special Forces Detachment, 1st Special Forces Regiment was first constituted on 27 August 1965 in the Regular Army as the 39th Special Forces Detachment, 1st Special Forces. It was activated on 1 September 1965 in Germany. Stationed in Berlin as part of US forces there, the Detachment was primarily tasked with preparing to assist partisans in a stay-behind capacity in the event of a Soviet seizure of Allied areas of Berlin.

This function had first been the responsibility of a previous iteration of the Detachment, known as the 7761st Army Unit, possibly a cover designation. This unit had been formed from 6 Operational Detachment Alphas ("A Teams") from the original 10th Special Forces Group in August 1956. The unit had been embedded within Headquarters and Headquarters company, 6th Infantry Regiment, Regimental Headquarters. Each team at that time was comprised of one Master Sergeant and 5 team members. Overall Officer in charge of the group was a major, assisted by a Captain. In April 1958, the unit was assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Company, US Army Garrison Berlin with a new name: Detachment A (Det A). In April 1962, Detachment A was separated from the Garrison and became Detachment A, Berlin Brigade, US Army Europe (USAREUR). This was continued to be used, possibly as a cover designation, even after the formal activation of 39th Special Forces Detachment in 1965.
The 39th Special Forces Detachment continued the unconventional warfare mission in Berlin mission until it was inactivated on 1 October 1984 .
The 39th Special Forces Detachment was reactivated on 16 October 2005 in Korea. Concurrently, Special Forces Detachment - Korea (SFD-K) was inactivated and reflagged as the 39th Special Forces Detachment. In Korea, the 39th Special Forces Detachment took over the training and other missions previously handled by SFD-K.

Republic of Korea Army Special Warfare Command (ROKASWC), (Korean: 대한민국 육군 특수전사령부) also known as Republic of Korea Black Beret Commandos is the military command of the Republic of Korea Army responsible for their special operation forces. It consists of 6 brigades, and its main tasks include conducting reconnaissance and other tasks, mostly behind enemy lines. Its tasks include but not limited to collecting secret information in enemy territory, spotting ROK military firepower, and carrying out other designated tasks. The Special Warfare Command brigades are trained for wartime missions behind enemy lines. Although information on the organization of these units was unavailable in 1990, they probably were among the best-trained and most combat-ready forces in the army.
Since 1993, the South Korean military has trained experts by sending officers to various PKO training institutions such as the Northern Europe United Nations Training Corps (UNTC), Poland, and Ireland. And since 1995, officers and related government officials have been sent to the Pearson Peacekeeping Center (PPC) in Canada. To lay the foundation for PKO education domestically, in 1995 the military designated the Joint Services Staff College to be the lead institution to educate officers to become military observers and staff. In May 1998, the PKO Department was officially inaugurated within the college. Moreover, the Special Warfare Command's Education Corps was designated as the institution solely responsible for unit-level education of PKO forces by providing solid education for infantry and engineer personnel.  The command includes seven special warfare brigades that receive special training for counter-terrorist missions. These seven brigades were funded in 1957 and fall under the jurisdiction of the Special Warfare Command, which was founded in 1969. ROK special forces brigade’s main tasks include collecting information in enemy territory and carrying out special missions.
ROK Special Forces brigades work in close relationship with their counterparts in the United States Army Special Forces. Volunteers for these brigades undergo training in high skilled weapon handling and parachuting. Units of the command include:

•             Special Warfare Training Group
•             1st Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'Eagle'
•             3rd Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'Flying Tiger'
•             7th Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'Pegasus'
•             9th Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'Ghost'
•             11th Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'Golden Bat'
•             13th Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'Black Panther'
             Oversea deployment Group or Special Mission Group
              (formerly - 5th Special Forces Brigade ‘Black Dragon’)                    
•             707th Special Mission Battalion 'White Tiger'

The United Nations Partisan Infantry Korea (UNPIK) (주한국제연합유격군), ), also known as the White Tigers, was a unit during the Korean War that was consolidated under the control of Eighth United States Army, Korea's 8th Army G-3 Miscellaneous Group, 8086th and 8240th Army Unit. Formerly known as United Nations Partisan Forces Korea, or United Nations Partisan Infantry Korea, it was a unit comprised of Indigenous personnel with international military advisors (US personnel assigned under 8240th Army Unit and 8242nd Army Unit, from February 1951 to February 1954) during the KOREAN WAR; formerly known as Combined Command for Reconnaissance Activities Korea (CCRAK). The covert techniques established by OSS, enhanced by UNPFK and JACK, were inherited by SOG, and have since been passed to Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) and US Special Operations Command (USSOC). The details about the undercover operation was made public by the US Army in 1990. The unit worked deep inside North Korea to gather intelligence, conduct raids and sabotage, rescue POWs, recruit & lead guerrilla armies and create confusion in the enemy’s rear.
The unit is widely seen as the second steppingstone towards the setting up of a permanent special forces doctrine in the US Army. A documentary about the unit has been produced by the History Channel as part of their Heroes under fire series. UNPIK was disbanded in 1954.
The island Wollaedo in the Yellow Sea was used as a base by pro-Southern partisans during the war. This position was regularly bombarded by Northern artillery on the mainland of Cape Changsan. In 1952, a group of partisans working together with UNPIK landed on the cape. They successfully took control of and destroyed the artillery site, escaping with small losses.

In January 1951, it came to the attention of 8th Army that a large number of anti-communist North Ko­reans had fought their way to Korea’s west coast and sailed to the offshore islands. These men had become par­tisans fighting to free their homeland of scourge of communism. The guer­rilla Section, 8th US Army G3 Misc. was formed and a cadre known as LEOPARD took control of these partisans and began operations in the north. Concomitantly, US Army Spe­cial Forces activated at Fort Bragg, NC and 90 Special Forces Soldiers were deployed to Korea to work with these partisan Soldiers. With more than 8000 partisan Soldiers, a second control unit WOLFPACK was born. LEOPARDs strength expanded daily and, by June 1951, west coast partisans counted over eight thousand men on the active roster. This, plus distance and poor communications, made Miscellaneous Group Headquarters rethink its organization. WOLFPACK Headquarters was established to command partisan operations on the south coast of Hwanghae Province while LEOPARD moved its forward headquarters north to Ch'o-do and commanded west coast operations from the 38th Parallel north to the Yalu River. WOLFPACK initially established its headquarters on Yonp'yong-do, an island group at the mouth of Haeju Estuary centrally located between Paengnyong-do to the west and the mouth of the Han River to the east.
WOLFPACK Headquarters later moved to Kanghwa-do, an island at the mouth of the Han adjacent to the mainland. Results by these two units were excellent By the Cease-fire, they were credited with forcing the enemy to have 75,000 troops on security duty in Hwanghae Province alone. Additionally, they compiled a phenomenal record of successful actions combined with a relatively small loss record.

On May 5, 1951, the Guerrilla Section, 8th Army G3 Miscellaneous Division, became an independent Army unit - the 8086th Army Unit. This was changed to Far East Command Liaison Detachment, Korea, FECLD-K 8240th AU on 10 Dec 1951 and all partisan operations came under its Guerrilla Division, United Nations Partisan Forces, Korea (UNPIK). At this time, all division TAC-Intel (TLO units) and 8th Army positive intelligence operations were consolidated under Combined Command Reconnaissance Activities, Korea (CCRAK), 8240th AU. BAKER split. The training section remained at Kijang as the 1st Partisan Airborne Infantry Regiment (PAIR). The operational section moved to K-16 (Seoul City Airport between Seoul and Yongdong-po), was redesignated the Airborne Special Missions Platoon, and given the code name AVIARY.
This structure remained in place until December 1952 when LEOPARD, WOLFPACK, AND TASK FORCE SCANNON (formerly KIRKLAND) were redesignated Partisan Infantry Regiments (PIR) and UNPFK headquarters the United Nations Partisan Infantry, Korea (UNPIK). The 1st PIR moved to Yongdong-po at this time. All units retained these designations until disbandment in April, 1954.

The 1st Special Forces Brigade (Eagle) (1 공수특전여단  '독수리') was the original unit of the ROK Army Special Forces. It is a very proud unit with a long heritage. 1st BDE was founded on 01 April 1958 as the 1st Combat Regiment. On 01 October 1959, it was re-designated as the 1st Airborne Special Forces Group. In September 1972, it was re-designated again as the 1st ROK SF BDE. The BDE is very proud to have one of 10 its former Commanders, BG Chun Doo Hwan, serve as the President of Korea from 1980-1987. Their Mascot is the Eagle.

The 3rd Special Forces Brigade (Flying Tiger) (3+공수 특전 여단 '플라잉 타이거') was founded on 18 January 1969 as the 1st Ranger BDE. On 10 September 1972, the unit was re-designated as the 3rd ROK SF BDE. Although all the BDEs practice martial arts, the 3rd BDE is well known for its Tae-Kwon-Do. They performed Tae-Kwon-Do demonstrations in the 1986 Seoul Asian Games, 1988 Seoul Olympics, and the Annual Armed Forces Day Demonstrations. Their mascot is the Flying Tiger.

The Special Mission Group (Black Dragon) (특수임무단 (흑룡)), formerly 5th Special Forces Brigade (5공수특전여단 '흑룡'), was founded on 17 February 1969 as the 2nd Ranger BDE. On 10
September 1972, the unit was re-designated as the 5th ROK SF BDE, and finally became the
Special Mission Group in 1999, mostly deployed for international peacekeeping missions worldwide. Peace Keeping Support Group (ROK - PKF) as of July 2010. Their mascot is the Dragon.

The 7th Special Forces Brigade (Pegasus) (7공수특전여단 '천마부대') was founded on 01 October 1974. The BDE is proud of their HAHO/HALO capabilities and maintains one of the only usable year-round Drop Zones. Their mascot is the Flying Horse.

The 9th Special Forces Brigade (Ghost) (9공수특전여단 '귀성부대') was founded along with the 7th BDE on 1 October 1974. The BDE is very proud of having one of their former Commanders, Rho Tae Woo, serve as the Korean President from 1987-1992. Their mascot is the Phantom.

The 11th Special Forces Brigade (Golden Bat) (11공수특전여단 '황금박쥐부대') was founded on 01 October 1977. Their mascot is the Bat.

The 13th Special Forces Brigade (Black Panther) (13공수특전여단 '흑표부대') was founded along with the 9th BDE on 01 October 1976 as a provisional unit along with the 11 BDE but not officially recognized until 01 October 1977. The 13th BDE maintains the SWCs mountain training site near the BDE. Their mascot is the Panther.

The 707th Special Missions Battalion (White Tiger) (707특수임무대대 '백호부대') is the elite Special Forces unit in the Republic of Korea Army Special Warfare Command. The battalion's nickname is 'White Tiger.' The 707th Special Mission Battalion was founded in late 1981 under Republic of Korean Presidential Executive Order as a world-class Counter-Terrorist force to support Domestic and International Counter-Terrorism. It owns and operates a multi-complex CT training site for the SWC and hosts multi-national counter-terrorist training. The battalion's nickname is 'White Tiger.'
The 707th Special Mission Battalion also trains with foreign partners, such as U.S. Army Special Operations Command Delta Force, British Army SAS, Russian FSB Alpha Group, French Gendarmerie GIGN, US FBI HRT, Hong Kong SDU, and Singapore Police Force STAR. The purpose is to experience and increase relationships and exchanges with international Special Forces communities.  The South Korean government lavishly funds the battalion, and as a result The 707th Special Mission Battalion uses a wide variety of weapons. The HK MP5 is used as for close quarters battle or hostage rescue missions. The Benelli Tactical Super-90 shotgun with pistol grips is used for breaching purposes or to give a shock effect. For sniping missions, the unit uses AW series sniper rifles or MOD.SSG-69 sniper rifle. For common special operations, the unit uses K-1A Carbine, K-2 Assault Rifle, and K-7 9mm Silenced Sub Machine Gun. If heavy firepower is needed, the unit has K-3 Light Machine Gun, K-201 40mm grenade launcher and deploy Short Brothers Javelin man-portable SAMs as a defense against low-level aircraft. The unit's main secondary side weapons are IMI Jericho 941F Tactical and HK USP9 Tactical. The unit’s mascot is the White Tiger.

As always, the above insignia are available on a limited number of selected quality products via my “Military Insignia” galleries atZazzle. You may simply follow the direct links in the article to navigate to the corresponding galleries
I will also make my insignia designs available free of charge to any military units and personnel, for any non-profit/non-commercial and charitable causes, benefiting troops and their families. In addition, I would make my designs available free of charge to any military branches, formations and units for any non-commercial internal duty-specific purposes, such as unit-related web design, training materials or presentations, as I did on many occasions in the past.

Special thanks to Chuck Stanton, US Army Retired, First Sergeant (SF). The above information provided in part by U.S. Army Center of Military history, The Institute of Heraldry, Global Security, and official websites of the above-mentioned units.

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